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Medical Terms Used on Board船上医疗术语1

作者:EastSeaMan | 来源:网络转摘 | 时间:2023-01-06

1. Regions of the Body 身体各部位

head 

brain 大脑

skull 头骨

hair 头发

forehead (upper/lower forehead) 前额

temple 太阳穴

eyebrows 睫毛

eye 眼睛

cheek 脸颊

nose  

mouth 

lip (upper/lower)嘴唇

ear 耳朵

cavity 口腔

tooth(teeth) 牙齿

tongue 舌头

throat 喉咙

chin 下巴

lower jaw 下颚

neck 脖子


shoulder  肩膀

arm (forearm) 手臂

elbow 手肘

wrist 手腕

hand 

palm 手掌

fist 拳头

fingers (the thumb and index finger)手指

nail 指甲


chest 胸部

pit 胸口

abdomen 腹部

belly  肚子

navel 肚脐

waist  

back  

backbone 脊柱 

hip 臀部

bottom  屁股

leg  

thigh 大腿

knee 膝盖

shank 小腿

ankle  脚踝

foot (feet)

heel  脚后跟

toe  脚趾头


skeleton 骨架

bone 骨头

joint 关节

rib  肋骨

muscle 肌肉

blood vessel 血管

capillary      毛细血管

vein 静脉

artery 动脉

nerve 神经

spinal cord/marrow 骨髓

pulse 脉搏

heart 心脏

lung 

stomach 

liver  

kidney 

gullet  食管

pancreas  胰腺


2 Terms and expressions used in first aid 急救术语

ill or injured person 生病或受伤的人

unconscious person 昏迷的人

First aid 急救

  • choking 窒息(obstructions in the mouth and throat 嘴巴和喉咙有堵塞物)

  • bleeding 流血

  • shock 休克(raid pulse, cool and pale skin, low blood pressure)

(blood pressure is expressed in millimetres of mercury 毫米汞柱(mmHg);two levels of pressure are recorded: systolic pressure收缩压, as the heart beats or contracts, and diastolic pressure舒张压, as the heart relaxes.)  


airway--if blocked, open it

breathing--if stopped, restart it 

circulation--if stopped, restart it 


resuscitation 复苏(a person who is not breathing or has no detectable heart beat)

cardio-pulmonary resuscitation 心肺复苏(CPR) (artificial respiration and external cardiac 心脏的compression)

breathing and blood circulation 呼吸和血液循环

airway 气道

rescue breathing (artificial respiration) 人工呼吸

mouth-to-mouth rescue breathing 口对口人工呼吸

mouth-to-nose rescue breathing  口对鼻人工呼吸

using a bag and mask resuscitator复苏器

chest compression 胸部按压


check pulse and breathing  检查脉搏和呼吸

wound 伤口

a basic life support sequence  基本生命维持顺序

basic life support 基本生命维持

breath 呼吸

heart beats 心跳


take the pulse (the best is the carotid颈动脉 (neck) pulse) 把脉

signs of regular breathing 有均匀呼吸的迹象

feel for exhaled air 感觉到呼气

nausea  恶心

vomiting 呕吐

sweating 流汗

suffer from severe pain 剧烈疼痛

fracture 骨折

scale of pain  疼痛量表

  • none pain 无疼痛

  • mild pain 轻微疼痛

  • moderate but bearable pain 中等且可忍受的疼痛

  • severe pain  剧痛

  • unbearable pain 无法忍受的疼痛

analgesics 止痛剂

No hurt  无受伤


3 Head injuries 头部受伤

-Injury, or trauma创伤, to the head can damage the scalp头皮, the skull颅骨, and the brain大脑.

-blow to the skull; 颅骨受到打击

-skull fracture; 颅骨骨折

—simple fracture单纯骨折,无创骨折 (the bone is broken but the skin over it is undamaged)

—compound fracture复合骨折,有创骨折 (the fracture communicates with the air骨折处暴露于空气中)

-suffer from severe brain injury (brain swelling or bleeding大脑肿胀和流血)

-closed head injury闭合性颅脑损伤 (blow with a blunt钝的 object or strike a hard, unmoving object, for example in a fall);

-penetrating head injury 穿透性头部损伤(an object, such as a bullet, entering the brain); 

-traumatic brain injury/damage 创伤性脑损伤(signs and symptoms: loss or impairment of consciousness, confusion, loss of memory意识丧失或损伤、混淆、失忆)


seek evacuation if  the patient:

-cannot be woken, 

-has a severe headache, 

-is confused, 

-is unsteady when trying to stand, 

-has a seizure发作 , 

-is incontinent of urine or faeces/feces, 大小便失禁

-has weakness or numbness of any part of the body 虚弱,失去知觉



4 Eye injuries

-Eye injuries can result from a number of causes, including a foreign body, a direct blow to the eye, laceration割裂, exposure to a chemical, and a burn. 

-suffer an injury to the eye (metal fragments produced by grinding磨碎, hammering or drilling metal, can readily penetrate the eye; chemicals)

-suffer a chemical burns in the eye 眼睛受到化学物灼伤

-suffer a blow on the eye 眼睛受到撞击

-normal vision 正常视力

-a foreign body in the eye 眼睛有异物

-eye socket 眼窝,眼眶 (fracture)

-blowout fracture 爆裂性骨折

-orbit 眼眶

-eyeball  眼球

-eyelid 眼皮

-pupil 瞳孔

-cornea 眼角膜

-retina 视网膜

apply eye ointment 眼药膏

-strap an eye pad 遮眼罩


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